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Lymph: When a tissue fluid enters the lymphatic system we called it lymph. Lymph is a clear, colorless or lightly yellowish substance which looks like plasma. Generally people don’t know much about lymph. Because if some one cut his body normally we saw bleeding but if blood vessel unharmed and colorless substance appears and off course it is lymph. Lymph contains white blood cells that eliminate bacteria and provide mature lymphocytes to the blood. Lymph transfers fat from the small intestine and also some proteins from the tissues.
Lymphoid System: Lymphoid system is a system where lymph flows through lymphatic vessels. Lymphoid system is like blood system. As lymph carries WBC, so its a part of immune system.
Lymphoid System structure: Lymphoid system is divided in 3 parts.-
1. Lymphatic vessels.
2. Lymphoid organs: Lymphoid organs r 2 types-
(a)Primary or central lymphoid organs
• Bone marrow
(b)Peripheral lymphoid organs
• Lymph nodes
• –Solitary nodules
• –Peyer’s patches of ileum
3. Lymphoid cells (free cells): Lymphoid cells are 4 types
(a) T lymphocytes
(b) B lymphocytes
(d) Natural killer (Nk) cells
Lymphoid tissue: Lymphoid tissue is a specialized connective tissue which contains numerous lymphocytes.
1. Lymphatic vessels: There are numerous lymph capillaries through all over body. Almost every cell have lymph capillary and lymph capillary wall build with only one endothelium.
Body part where lymph vessel exists:
1. Deeper layer of skin
2. Subcutaneous tissues
4. Wall of abdominal cavity
6. Linings of respiratory tract except alveoli
7. Lining of digestive tract
8. Lining of urinary tract
9. Lining of genital tract
Body part where lymph vessel doesn’t exists:
1. Avascular structure like epidermis, hair, nail, cornea and articular hyaline cartilage.
2. Splenic pulp and bone marrow.
3. Brain and spinal cord.
4. Alveoli of lungs.
Lymphatic nodes: Lymph nodes are bean shaped or small encapsulated spiral organs which are made with lymphoid tissue. Lymphatic nodes found in lymphatic vessels in different part of body. We have 800Lymph nodes in our body.
Superficial lymph nodes:
-Cervical lymph nodes
-Axillary Lymph nodes
-Inguinal lymph nodes
Deep lymph nodes:
-Iliac lymph nodes
-Lumbar lymph nodes
-Mesenteric lymph nodes.
Lymphatic ducts: Lymphatic vessels carry lymph to the lymphatic ducts.
Human body has 2 lymphatic ducts –
(a) Thoracic lymphatic duct: Thoracic lymphatic duct receives all of the body lymph(only not from head, right side of neck and left side of chest)
(b) Right lymphatic duct: Right lymphatic duct receives lymph only from head, right side of neck and left side of chest.
Function of lymphoid system:
1. If any micro organisms/ foreign substances enters in body they filtrated by lymph from lymph node. In case of blood they filtrated in spleen. Thus lymphoid system defenses the body.
2. Lymphatic vessels send extra tissue fluid to blood.
3. Lymphoid system transfers fat to digestive system by lacteals and then through lymphatic vessels to blood.
4. Lymphoid system also transfers protein from tissue space to blood.
Composition of lymph:
1. Water 96%
2. Solid 4%
A. Organic substances:
Proteins (2.6% of solids)
• -Other clothing factors
Lipids (5-15% of solids)
• -In the form of chylomicrons
• -Glucose (120 mg %)
• -All the amino acids present in plasma
- Non-protein nitrogenous substances
• -Urea and creatinine.
B. Inorganic substances:
• In low concentration in plasma
• In high concentration in plasma
C. Cellular contents:
• -Mainly Lymphocytes (1000 to 2000/cmm)
• -Plasma cells
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