What is Anaemia? symptoms anaemia and more



 Here you will get some information about 'What is Anaemia?' as wellas  symptoms anaemia.....

 Generally 'Anaemia' known as a reduction of haemolobin concentration in blood (<12 mg/dl) is below normal for the age and sex.

What is the cause of Anaemia?

There are many causes of anaemia. They are:

1. Excessive blood loss due to acute or chronic hemorrhage.
2. Destruction of RBC before the exact timing of duration.
3. Lack of necessary factor which take part creating in RBC.
4. Disease in bone marrow.

Classification of Anaemia:

There are three types of Anaemia. They are:

1. Deficiency anaemia: This type of anaeemia causes for lactation of those factor which are important for creating RBC.
a) Iron deficiency anaemia.
b) Vit-B12 deficiency anaemia


2. Anaemia caused by depression of bone marrow function. Example- Aplastic Anaemia.
3. Anaemia caused by exessive RBC destruction. Example- Haemolytic Anaemia.

According the type of RBC there are 3types of anaemia.

1. Hypochromatic microcytic anaemia
2. Normochromatic normocytic anaemia
3. Macrocytic anaemia.

Let’s take a short look about these 3types of Anaemia:

1. Hypochromatic microcytic Anaemia-
When in the blood haemoglobin concentration is less than normall and size of RBC is smaller than normal size called Hypochromic microcytic anaemia.

Hypochromic anaemia found in disease like:
i) Iron deficiency: Among all types of anaemia is the most anaemia causes for iron deficiency. It is due to a reason of eating food of low quality food value in iron. Low quality food means food which has low content of iron. Another reason is defective iron absorption of body system. But mostly the reason is hook worm infection in gastrointestinal tract.

Causes of iron deficiency:
a) Blood loss from Uterus/GI tract.
b) Increased growth demand like growth and pregnancy.
c) Decreased absorption.
d) Poor intake of iron by food.

ii) Anaemia of chronic disease (Tuberculosis, Malignant disease, Chronic inflammatory disease),
iii) Thalassaemia
iv) Sideroblastic anaemia.

2. Normochromatic normocytic Anaemia-
Normochromatic normocytic Anaemia generally found in chronic disease and some endocrine disorder like Hypopituitarism, hypothyroidsm. Besides these in haematological disorders and acute in blood loss, normochromatic normocytic anaemia is found. Aplastic anaemia, some haemolytic anaemia are the examples of normochromatic normocytic anaemia.

3. Macrocytic anaemia-
Macrocytic anaemia causes or many reason.
Physiological causes
-Pregnancy
-Newborn
Pathological causes
-Vitamin B12 deficiency
-Folic acid deficiency
-Liver disease
-Alcohol (excess intake)
-Hypothyroidism

Macrocytic anaemia is divided in 2type.
i) Megaloblastic anaemia ( raised MCV with megaloblast)
ii) Macrocytosis without megaloblastic changes.

i) Megaloblastic anaemia
Megaloblastic anaemia is characterized by thr presence in bone marrow of erythroblast with delayed nuclear maturation because of defective DNA synthesis.

Causes:
a) Vitamin B12 deficiencies or abnormal vitamin B12 metabolism.
b) Folic acid deficiencies or abnormal Folic acid metabolism.
c) Defects of DNA synthesis.
Charateristics of megaloblast:
a) Cells are large having large immature nuclei.
b) Nuclei chromatins are more distinctively placed.

ii) Macrocytosis without megaloblastic changes:
In these anaemia megaloblastic changes doesn’t found.


Aplastic anaemia:
Aplastic anaemia is a condition of aplasia of bone marrow for insufficient RBC, WBC and platelets (in Pancytopenia).
Causes:
1. Primary
- Congenital
- Idiopathic
2. Secondary: According to bone marrow damage
- Chemical
- Drugs
- Ionizing radiation
- Infections
- Pregnancy.
Results of aplastic anaemia/ bone marrow failure:
Aplastic anaemia causes bleeding from gums, mouth infection, epistaxis.

Haemolytic anaemia:
If RBC of blood is destroyed in immature form/ before reaching lifetime, anaemia arises known as haemolytic anaemia. Normally RBC lifetime is 120 day.

Causes of haemolytic anaemia:
1. Heriditary or congenital

(a) Membrane defects
- Hereditary spherocytosis
- Hereditary elliptocytosis
- Hereditary stomatocytosis

(b) Haemoglobin defects
- Sickle cell disease
-Thalassaemia

(c) Metabolic defects
- Phospho-kinase deficiency
- G6PD deficiency.

2. Acquired
(a) Immunological causes
- Auto-immune haemolytic anaemia
- Haemolytic disease of the newborn
- Incompatible blood transfution
- Drug induced haemolytic anaemia

(b) Non immunological causes
- Mechanical haemolytic anaemia
- Cardiac haemolytic anaemia
- Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia

(c) Miscellaneous
- Drugs/ chemicals
- Burns
- Lead poisoning